Russia is imposing a “full embargo” on food imports from the EU, US and some other Western countries, in response to sanctions over Ukraine.
Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said it would include fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, milk and dairy imports.
Australia, Canada and Norway are also affected.
Elsewhere, Nato chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen said Ukraine’s freedom and future were “under attack,” promising support against Russian “aggression”.
The latest developments come during heightened tensions between Russia and the West over Ukraine, where heavy shelling was reported in the eastern rebel stronghold of Donetsk on Thursday.